In normal healthy adult, insulin, a type of hormone secreted from the beta cells of pancreas into the blood, plays a significant role in body metabolism with the help of which cells absorb glucose from the blood and eventually use it as a source of energy. However, if the cells become resistant to this hormone thereby unable to utilize it effectively, the physiological condition which results is termed as Insulin Resistance. Thus, instead of being absorbed by the cells, glucose builds up in blood eventually causing type 2 diabetes. Beta cells subsequently increase their insulin production due to increase demand, further adding to raised blood sugar levels- Hyperglycaemia.
Causes- Two main causes that contribute to insulin resistance are:
Other less common cause includes family history of diabetes, hypertension, CVD, CKD etc. Miscellaneous causes such as old age, smoking, disturb sleep, certain medicine use like steroids also contribute towards the causes of insulin resistance.
Sign & Symptoms
Early detection of the state is difficult until hyperglycaemia is apparent. Hence the symptom which is mainly to be observed under hyperglycaemia is:
Acanthosis Nigricans - Dark patches on skin especially on the back of the neck, round the neck, armpits, elbows, knees and knuckles
Diagnosis of Insulin Resistance - Diagnosis of insulin resistance in the initial stages is very difficult till the symptoms due to hyperglycaemia start appearing. Blood tests that help detecting this physiological condition include:
Fasting and post prandial blood sugar
Oral glucose tolerance test
Stay Healthy. Stay Safe from Diabetes. You can access www.grass-diabetes.com to know more on diabetes and also to make a genetic risk assessment report based on your genes and lifestyle.
Dr. Shivangi Gupta